Technical Articles / White Papers

In order for Oriental Motor to be a world leader in motion systems for the last century, we have concentrated on technological advancement and product design improvement. The technical articles available here describe the ideas, concepts, methods and results of some of the research activities undertaken by the Engineers in our factories and R&D Center.

Let us know what you think! We appreciate the opportunity to receive feedback and/or answer any questions regarding these technical articles.


Stepper Motor Articles

Stepper motors are used to achieve precise positioning via digital control. The motor operates by accurately synchronizing with the pulse signal output from the controller to the driver. Stepper motors, with their ability to produce high torque at low speed while minimizing vibration, are ideal for applications requiring quick positioning over a short distance.

  • Eliminating External Sensors with the AZ Series Stepper Motors - Sensing technology is everywhere today. Sensors are used to detect human touch on a smart phone, ambient temperature in a room, and even in non-invasive blood glucose measurement for diabetes detection. In this paper, we will focus on the most commonly adopted external sensors used specifically for homing and limiting motor operations.
  • Stepper Motor Overview - an introduction to stepper motor technology.
  • The Basics of Stepper Motors - Learn about the types of stepper motors, how they work and the key features and benefits of stepper motor technology.
  • 2-phase (0.9°/1.8°) and 5-phase (0.36°/0.72°) Stepper Motor Comparison - Learn the similarities and differences of two core stepper motor technologies.
  • Stepper Motor Gearheads - Learn about the various gearhead options available for stepper motors.
  • Stepper Motor Glossary of Terms
  • Everything You Need to Know About Stepper Motors - Stepper motors are often misconceived as the lesser of servo motors, but as a matter of fact, they are highly reliable just like servo motors. The motor operates by accurately synchronizing with the pulse signal output from the controller to the driver, achieving highly accurate positioning and speed control. Stepper motors feature high torque and low vibration at low-speeds, ideal for applications requiring quick positioning in short distance.
  • Overcoming Rotation Vibration, CVD Series 2-Phase Bipolar Driver - Ideally, stepper motors should operate smoothly without vibration throughout all speed ranges. In reality, they run with some vibration at low, mid, or high speeds, causing unwanted noise. This type of vibration is called "rotation vibration" and developing the suppression system for the rotation vibration is a major challenge. To overcome this, it is common to microstep a stepper motor, into many smaller steps. However, with today’s technology, microstepping alone is not enough. Not all stepper motor drivers or chips manage rotation vibration the same way. This technical paper will explain the advantages of the CVD Series 2-Phase Bipolar stepper motor driver technology.
  • Development of Battery-Free Multi-Rotation Absolute Encoder - In recent years, greater accuracy and better reliability are demanded of motors, especially motors used in critical positioning applications. Such systems typically utilize encoder feedback with battery backup mounted on the motor, allowing it to perform closed loop control. However, since the battery frequently needs to be replaced, a maintenance-free absolute encoder is in high demand. From these requirements, a battery-free, multi-turn absolute encoder was developed. The AZ Series, a closed loop system, adopted this type of sensor and is currently on the market today.
  • Industrial Network Communications - FLEX products In order to meet various requirements, Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) and motors/drivers in equipment have been connected in numerous ways, such as pulse train, digital I/O, and fieldbus networks. We have developed products that can be connected to multiple industrial networks. They can be connected to an I/O device and Modbus RTU network. They can also be connected to other field bus networks through a Network Converter (our gateway product). The products can be flexibly connected to a host PLC and it allow customers to select a system depending on their needs. We call this concept FLEX. Since some of the FLEX products have a positioning function, positioning units of host PLCs can be omitted and costs of equipment can be reduced. The FLEX products allow customers to reduce costs and time of developing equipment by using each merit of industrial networks.
  • Features of the CVK Series Stepper Motor and Driver Package - Stepper motors are used in a wide variety of applications because of their ease of use and accurate positioning. In recent years, though, most users demand high torque, low vibration, and higher accuracy. The CVK series is a stepper motor and DC input driver package with higher torque, lower vibration, and higher accuracy than conventional stepper products. We have developed a 1.8° product with an emphasis on torque, and a 0.72°/0.36° product that stresses low vibration and high accuracy. The CVK series is also highly compatible between the versions, allowing for easy standardization.
  • Speed-Torque Curves for Stepper Motors - When selecting a stepper motor, the speed—torque characteristic curves provided by manufacturers presents an idea of what performance can be expected from a motor. These curves show what performance different motor and driver combinations can provide to your application. This article will describe how a speed - torque curve for a stepper motor is generated and what are the important points to look for on a curve.
  • The New Pentagon Bipolar Driver for 5-Phase (0.36°/0.72°) Stepper Motors - Oriental Motor stepper motors with a step angles of 0.36° or 0.72° are wound in the bipolar New Pentagon configuration and, therefore, require a bipolar type driver. The New Pentagon bipolar driver allows the stepper motor to be driven at full step, half step and even microstep resolutions while ensuring that maximum torque is being generated by the motor on every step. This is a unique advantage for 0.36° or 0.72° stepper motors. The New Pentagon bipolar drive method also provides extremely smooth motion as well as maintaining torque and step accuracy regardless of the step resolution.
  • Stepper Motor Lower Loss Technology Development - The stepper motor can control the speed and the position accurately in an open loop control mode. The stepper motor had a disadvantage of large heat generation when rotating at high speed. It has had an advantage in which it can be used easily. The stepper motor has been used mainly to utilize the standstill holding brake force and the torque at low speed. However, recently, another customer demand for being able to operate continuously at high speed has risen thereby shortening the cycle equipment time. The motor loss is greatly reduced compared with the conventional stepper motor by use of suitable lamination sheet and fastening method of the laminated iron core. This paper focuses on lowering the losses of the stepper motor. The motor shown in Table.1 is selected for the conventional stepping motor described in this paper.
  • How to Address Increased Loads in Both Size and Weight - Increasing the size and weight will increase the inertia of the load and the torque required to move the load. Gearing is a great option for overcoming large inertia loads as it will decrease the reflected inertia on the motor by the gear ratio squared. Adding a gear ratio will also increase the amount of torque generated. Typically, the torque produced is equal to the motor torque multiplied by the gear ratio and the efficiency of the gear. However, there are instances when the output torque is limited based on other mechanical reasons, such as gear teeth strength, gear case strength, or gear carrier strength. This paper discusses various gear options that are available for use.
  • How to Use Sensor Less Homing to Create a Hard Stop and Change Direction - The AR series features extended functions not normally offered on conventional stepper motors. Using the TLC output on the AR, we can sense a preset torque setting range or perform a torque control function. This range is based on the motor current setting using either the MEXE02 software or OPX-2A data setter. During the application, the user can turn on the T-mode input which will activate the torque control mode or push motion. The user can manipulate the M0, M1, and M2 inputs to correspond to the motor current setting or torque setting desired.

Servo Motor Articles

The servo motor is specialized for high-response, high-precision positioning. The servo motor is composed of three elements: the motor, the encoder and the driver. As a motor capable of accurate rotation angle and speed control, it can be used for a variety of equipment. The tuning-free servo motor and driver package in the NX Series are easy to operate and allows for smooth operation with large inertial loads and belt mechanism.

AC Motor Articles

Standard AC Motors & Gear Motors operate by simply connecting a capacitor and supplying power from a commercial power supply. Standard AC Motors & Gear Motors include the basic induction motor and reversible motor. In addition, Oriental Motor offers electromagnetic brake motors, synchronous motors, torque motors and watertight, dust-resistant motors to meet specific application requirements.

  • Standard AC Motor & Gear Motor Overview - an introduction to AC motor technology
  • AC Motor Glossary of Terms
  • Features and Control Technologies of the DSC Series Motor and Speed Controller Package - An "AC motor and speed controller package" is a unit product composed of a robust, single-phase induction motor, and a low noise, long life speed controller. The DSC Series is a new AC Speed Control product. In order to improve ease of use, this product is equipped with an operation panel for monitoring various functions, as well as for digital settings. The new DSC control technology also accomplishes two functions that conventional products cannot; instant reversal of single phase induction motors, and vertical drive by deceleration control (electromagnetic brake type only).
  • Development of KII Series Hypoid Gear Motor - The motor industry was looking for a gear motor that would downsize, reduce loss and provide high torque. This led our company to develop the KII series, right angle gear motor, which is composed of a gear reducer using a hypoid gear and an induction motor.
  • Using a Torque Motor for Winding and Unwinding Type Applications - A torque motor is an excellent product for winding and unwinding type applications. Due to the design of the motor, it reaches full torque at 0 output speed, or locked rotor condition. A torque motor can act as a brake when back driven, or a simple device to provide tension. Depending on the torque setting, the motor will provide tension to the material while taking up slack in the line automatically, essentially matching the line speed.

Brushless DC Motor Articles

Brushless DC motors from Oriental Motor can achieve up to 970 lb-in of torque when combined with a standard geared option and with their space savings design contribute to a compact and powerful solution ranging from 15 W up to 400 W. With their flat torque, can produce rated torque from low to high speeds easily. Brushless DC motors also feature a wide variety of pre-assembled geared and electromechanical break options and are available with our industry leading stable lead times.

  • How to select between AC, Brushless DC and Brushed DC Motors - Comparison of speed control motor technology
  • Brushless DC Motor Overview - an introduction to Brushless DC motor technology.
  • Brushless DC Motors vs Servo Motors vs Inverters - When it comes to speed control, you may think the choice is between an inverter driven three-phase motor or servo motor, but did you know that brushless DC motors specialize in speed control? The brushless DC motor is growing in popularity in the world of speed control. However, not everyone is familiar with the power and performance to cost aspects of the brushless DC motor. Even in usage situations where it has demonstrated its capabilities, it tends to lag behind the two leading players, the inverter driven three-phase motor and the servo motor. This article introduces the capability of brushless DC motors, as well as points to consider when choosing a compact speed control motor.
  • Industrial Network Communications - FLEX products - In order to meet various requirements, Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) and motors/drivers in equipment have been connected in numerous ways, such as pulse train, digital I/O, and fieldbus networks. We have developed products that can be connected to multiple industrial networks. They can be connected to an I/O device and Modbus RTU network. They can also be connected to other field bus networks through a Network Converter (our gateway product). The products can be flexibly connected to a host PLC and it allow customers to select a system depending on their needs. We call this concept FLEX. Since some of the FLEX products have a positioning function, positioning units of host PLCs can be omitted and costs of equipment can be reduced. The FLEX products allow customers to reduce costs and time of developing equipment by using each merit of industrial networks.
  • Features of the BMU Series Brushless DC Motor and Driver Speed Control Package - Brushless DC motors have been used as the driving source in a variety of equipment and devices. In recent years, the demand for smaller machines and lower energy costs has increased. Naturally, these demands have passed down to the motor as well. The BMU series motor and driver package combines a brushless DC motor with a new driver for easy use. Compared with conventional motors, brushless DC motors are more compact, lighter in weight, and more energy efficient. In this paper, we describe the technology used to achieve the brushless DC motor's high efficiency and the features of the new BMU driver.
  • Speed Control Methods of Various Types of Speed Control Motors - A large number of motors are being used for general purposes in our surroundings from house-hold equipment to machine tools in industrial facilities. The electric motor is now a necessary and indispensable source of power in many industries. The function and the performance required for these motors are wide-ranging. When focusing attention on the speed control segment of the motor market, servo and stepper motors control their speed with a pulse train, while the induction motor and the brushless DC motor control speed with an external resistor and/or DC voltage.

Actuator Articles

A linear motion product incorporating a motor and linear-motion mechanism. Drawing on our expertise as a motor manufacturer, Oriental Motor offers a wide range of linear motion products in various shapes and sizes, featuring different motor types, drive methods and power inputs.

  • Motorized Linear Slide Glossary of Terms
  • Motorized Cylinder Glossary of Terms
  • Method for Calculating Moment Loads on Linear Actuators - An electric linear actuator is a combination product consisting of a linear mechanism and an electric motor, and when pre-assembled offers an easier design, shorter installation time, and high quality. While the actuator is operating, moment loads occur due to not only gravity, but also because of acceleration and deceleration of the load. Because moment loads can damage actuators, confirming that they are within specification is critical. However, calculating moment loads on linear actuators can be complicated and time consuming. This paper describes a method for calculating moment loads in a simple way and makes actuator selection easier.
  • Industrial Network Communications - FLEX products In order to meet various requirements, Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) and motors/drivers in equipment have been connected in numerous ways, such as pulse train, digital I/O, and fieldbus networks. We have developed products that can be connected to multiple industrial networks. They can be connected to an I/O device and Modbus RTU network. They can also be connected to other field bus networks through a Network Converter (our gateway product). The products can be flexibly connected to a host PLC and it allow customers to select a system depending on their needs. We call this concept FLEX. Since some of the FLEX products have a positioning function, positioning units of host PLCs can be omitted and costs of equipment can be reduced. The FLEX products allow customers to reduce costs and time of developing equipment by using each merit of industrial networks.

Cooling Fan Articles

Oriental Motor offers a wide range of cooling fans, including a cooling module suitable for enclosure cooling, axial flow fans for local cooling, as well as fans with low-speed or stall alarms or variable flow type.

  • Cooling Fans Structure, Air Flow Static Pressure Characteristics, and Heat Protection - Overheated equipment can lead to many problems, including failure, shorter product life, early deterioration of parts, malfunction, and other safety risks. Cooling fans and blowers are essential to applications in the presence of heat. In order to avoid these problems, the appropriate cooling unit for these systems must be selected. The features of cooling fans differ according to their air-blowing system. The following explains the structure of axial fans, centrifugal blowers and cross flow fans, as well as air flow-static pressure characteristics. Overheat protection is also discussed through the use of low-speed alarms, stall alarms, and thermal protectors. 
  • How to Select a Cooling Fan - To properly select a particular fan for an application, the detailed requirements must be known. This article goes through the steps of selecting a cooling fan. Cooling fans and blowers are essential to applications where temperatures must be maintained or withstand the presence of heat. In order to avoid problems, the appropriate cooling unit for these systems must be selected. 
  • How to Measure the Air Flow - Static Pressure Characteristics & the Characteristics of Noise - Two methods are available for measuring the air flow – static pressure characteristics: the air-duct measurement method via the pitot tube, and the double chamber measurement method. Oriental Motor employs the double chamber method, which offers higher accuracy than the air-duct method and is used worldwide. Moreover, Oriental Motor uses measuring equipment conforming to AMCA(Air Moving and Conditioning Association) standard 210, a fan measurement standard that is recognized worldwide.
  • Thermal Management - In recent years, the demand for equipment powered by natural energy sources such as solar and wind power, as well as the electric chargers for electric vehicles, has been rapidly increasing. Since this type of equipment is used in severe temperature and humidity environments, we should anticipate the need for temperature control in low temperature environment and potential problems, such as dew condensation due to the extreme temperature change.

General Reference

  • Motor Sizing Calculations - Proper sizing and selection of a motor for your equipment is key to ensuring performance, reliability and cost of the equipment. Learn about the procedure and calculations for properly sizing a motor for your application.
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