Technical Articles / White Papers

In order for Oriental Motor to be a world leader in motion systems for the last century, we have concentrated on technological advancement and product design improvement. The technical articles available here describe the ideas, concepts, methods and results of some of the research activities undertaken by the Engineers in our factories and R&D Center.

Stepper Motor Technical Articles / White Papers

Stepper motors are used to achieve precise positioning via digital control. The motor operates by accurately synchronizing with the pulse signal output from the controller to the driver. Stepper motors, with their ability to produce high torque at low speed while minimizing vibration, are ideal for applications requiring quick positioning over a short distance.

  • Development for Concentric Shaft Gearbox of Parallel Gear Reduction Mechanism- The newly developed CS gearbox makes it easier to design equipment and the allowable torque and the permissible radial load have been significantly improved compared to conventional models.
  • Development of the PKP Series Compact and Flat Connector Equipped Stepper Motor - Oriental Motor developed the PKP Series compact and flat connector equipped stepper motor without changing the motor size in response to greater demand for easier routing of the lead wire and a lower height of the connector unit in the PKP Series.
  • Hybrid Stepper Motors and AlphaStep Hybrid Control Systems - There are three types of stepper motors; variable reluctance, permanent magnet and hybrid stepper motors. This article will focus on hybrid stepper motors as well as Oriental Motor's AlphaStep Hybrid Control System for stepper motors.
  • AZD-KRD Compact Driver Development - The AZD-KRD compact driver has a smaller volume than the conventional product due to its radical design.
  • Improving Stepper Motor Design for Torque and Vibration - Learn the advantages offered by high torque motors to machine builders.
  • Eliminating External Sensors with the AlphaStep AZ Series Stepper Motors - Sensing technology is everywhere today. Sensors are used to detect human touch on a smart phone, ambient temperature in a room, and even in non-invasive blood glucose measurement for diabetes detection. In this paper, we will focus on the most commonly adopted external sensors used specifically for homing and limiting motor operations.
  • Stepper Motor Overview - an introduction to stepper motor technology.
  • Unipolar / Bipolar Motor Connections - Unipolar and bipolar connections for 2-phase stepper motors.
  • The Basics of Stepper Motors - Learn about the types of stepper motors, how they work and the key features and benefits of stepper motor technology.
  • 2-phase (0.9°/1.8°) and 5-phase (0.36°/0.72°) Stepper Motor Comparison - Learn the similarities and differences of two core stepper motor technologies.
  • Stepper Motor Gearheads - Learn about the various gearhead options available for stepper motors.
  • Stepper Motor Glossary of Terms
  • Everything You Need to Know About Stepper Motors - Stepper motors are often misconceived as the lesser of servo motors, but as a matter of fact, they are highly reliable just like servo motors. The motor operates by accurately synchronizing with the pulse signal output from the controller to the driver, achieving highly accurate positioning and speed control. Stepper motors feature high torque and low vibration at low-speeds, ideal for applications requiring quick positioning in short distance.
  • Overcoming Rotation Vibration, CVD Series 2-Phase Bipolar Driver - Ideally, stepper motors should operate smoothly without vibration throughout all speed ranges. In reality, they run with some vibration at low, mid, or high speeds, causing unwanted noise. This type of vibration is called "rotation vibration" and developing the suppression system for the rotation vibration is a major challenge. To overcome this, it is common to microstep a stepper motor, into many smaller steps. However, with today’s technology, microstepping alone is not enough. Not all stepper motor drivers or chips manage rotation vibration the same way. This technical paper will explain the advantages of the CVD Series 2-Phase Bipolar stepper motor driver technology.
  • Development of the AlphaStep Battery-Free Multi-Rotation Absolute Encoder - In recent years, greater accuracy and better reliability are demanded of motors, especially motors used in critical positioning applications. Such systems typically utilize encoder feedback with battery backup mounted on the motor, allowing it to perform closed loop control. However, since the battery frequently needs to be replaced, a maintenance-free absolute encoder is in high demand. From these requirements, a battery-free, multi-turn absolute encoder was developed. The AlphaStep AZ Series, a closed loop system, adopted this type of sensor and is currently on the market today.
  • Industrial Network Communications - FLEX products In order to meet various requirements, Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) and motors/drivers in equipment have been connected in numerous ways, such as pulse train, digital I/O, and fieldbus networks. We have developed products that can be connected to multiple industrial networks. They can be connected to an I/O device and Modbus RTU network. They can also be connected to other field bus networks through a Network Converter (our gateway product). The products can be flexibly connected to a host PLC and it allow customers to select a system depending on their needs. We call this concept FLEX. Since some of the FLEX products have a positioning function, positioning units of host PLCs can be omitted and costs of equipment can be reduced. The FLEX products allow customers to reduce costs and time of developing equipment by using each merit of industrial networks.
  • Features of the CVK Series Stepper Motor and Driver Package - Stepper motors are used in a wide variety of applications because of their ease of use and accurate positioning. In recent years, though, most users demand high torque, low vibration, and higher accuracy. The CVK series is a stepper motor and DC input driver package with higher torque, lower vibration, and higher accuracy than conventional stepper products. We have developed a 1.8° product with an emphasis on torque, and a 0.72°/0.36° product that stresses low vibration and high accuracy. The CVK series is also highly compatible between the versions, allowing for easy standardization.
  • Speed-Torque Curves for Stepper Motors - When selecting a stepper motor, the speed—torque characteristic curves provided by manufacturers presents an idea of what performance can be expected from a motor. These curves show what performance different motor and driver combinations can provide to your application. This article will describe how a speed - torque curve for a stepper motor is generated and what are the important points to look for on a curve.
  • The New Pentagon Bipolar Driver for 5-Phase (0.36°/0.72°) Stepper Motors - Oriental Motor stepper motors with a step angles of 0.36° or 0.72° are wound in the bipolar New Pentagon configuration and, therefore, require a bipolar type driver. The New Pentagon bipolar driver allows the stepper motor to be driven at full step, half step and even microstep resolutions while ensuring that maximum torque is being generated by the motor on every step. This is a unique advantage for 0.36° or 0.72° stepper motors. The New Pentagon bipolar drive method also provides extremely smooth motion as well as maintaining torque and step accuracy regardless of the step resolution.
  • Stepper Motor Lower Loss Technology Development - The stepper motor can control the speed and the position accurately in an open loop control mode. The stepper motor had a disadvantage of large heat generation when rotating at high speed. It has had an advantage in which it can be used easily. The stepper motor has been used mainly to utilize the standstill holding brake force and the torque at low speed. However, recently, another customer demand for being able to operate continuously at high speed has risen thereby shortening the cycle equipment time. The motor loss is greatly reduced compared with the conventional stepper motor by use of suitable lamination sheet and fastening method of the laminated iron core. This paper focuses on lowering the losses of the stepper motor. The motor shown in Table.1 is selected for the conventional stepping motor described in this paper.
  • How to Address Increased Loads in Both Size and Weight - Increasing the size and weight will increase the inertia of the load and the torque required to move the load. Gearing is a great option for overcoming large inertia loads as it will decrease the reflected inertia on the motor by the gear ratio squared. Adding a gear ratio will also increase the amount of torque generated. Typically, the torque produced is equal to the motor torque multiplied by the gear ratio and the efficiency of the gear. However, there are instances when the output torque is limited based on other mechanical reasons, such as gear teeth strength, gear case strength, or gear carrier strength. This paper discusses various gear options that are available for use.
  • How to Use Sensor Less Homing to Create a Hard Stop and Change Direction - The AlphaStep AR series features extended functions not normally offered on conventional stepper motors. Using the TLC output on the AR, we can sense a preset torque setting range or perform a torque control function. This range is based on the motor current setting using either the MEXE02 software or OPX-2A data setter. During the application, the user can turn on the T-mode input which will activate the torque control mode or push motion. The user can manipulate the M0, M1, and M2 inputs to correspond to the motor current setting or torque setting desired.
  • IP Ratings - Degree of Protection - The dust-resistance and waterproofing degrees of protection for the equipment are classified according to EN 60529 (Specification Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures (IP Code)) (=IEC 60529), EN 60034-5 (Rotating Electrical Machines - Part 5: Degrees of Protection Provided by The Integral Design of Rotating Electrical Machines (IP Code) – Classification) (=IEC 60034-5).
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